When faced with the threat of alien invasion, whether in the form of little green men or acidic bacteria, it is the duty and responsibility of every man and woman to do their bit to keep the Human race alive. Your species depends on you! This set of guidelines has been collated by the British Government to help you survive should you find yourself stranded, without power, and staring into the face of danger. Any polite and sporting alien should provide ample opportunity for you to read the correct section in line with the Intergalactic Fair Invasion Treaty (2012), before attacking you. Good luck.
Survival Without Clean Drinking Water
Water consumption is one of the most important things to ensure survival, when faced with difficult circumstances. Natural clear, flowing sources such as springs and streams are the best providers of water, when roughing it, as their movement helps with some purification. It is advisable to travel with clean water bottles or containers, to fill up whenever possible. These sources can be infrequent, however, and other methods of locating and purifying water may become necessary.
Some other sources of water are:
Lakes and Ponds
These stagnant water sources are less hygienic than those that are in motion, as they provide an ideal environment for small organisms to breed and other matter to accumulate. They are, therefore, home to many bacterial swarms, fecal deposits and even the bodies of dead animals.
Snow and Ice
During the winter, fresh water snow and ice are possible sources of water. The best method of collecting from these is to put them in a container with a little water, and position over a fire, gradually adding more as they melt. Consuming the ice or snow directly can lower a person’s body temperature dangerously, without necessarily quenching their thirst.
Water can be obtained from various plants, by wrapping their branches in plastic. After a period, condensation will occur and small amounts of water will drip into the bag. Ensure that this method of water collection is never attempted with a poisonous plant, however.
In the most extreme of circumstances, water can be collected by filtering mud or digging up dry river beds.
In areas where there are no immediately visible water sources, they may be found by walking downhill and looking for dark patches in the landscape. It is also advisable never to drink sea water or urine but, if they are the only available sources of liquid, they can be boiled and the steam collected, using a plastic bag or sheet.
Once water has been found, it will need to be purified to prevent illness. The greatest source of water contamination is the fecal matter of animals, and possibly other humans, and the most effective way of purification is by boiling. This gets rid of any bacteria and viruses, which the water may be harbouring. To use this method effectively, bring the water to a boil for 60 seconds and then allow to cool. It is ideal to do this in a metal container but, if one is not available, plastic, bark or even paper can be used once the container is kept completely full throughout the process. In cases where the water is visibly filthy, it may need to be filtered before boiling. This can be done using a t-shirt, sock or any other clothing item made of a light material.
Solar energy can also be used to purify drinking water. The UV rays of the sun will kill the majority of biological hazards, once the water has been left in plastic bottles in direct sunlight for a minimum of one day.